GEEK4IT 2017-12-11T19:39:00+00:00 chunjianye@gmail.com 区块链(R) 2017-12-10T23:00:00+00:00 GEEK4IT http://geek4it.com/区块链

2017-12-10 RATING: */10

区块链:重塑经济与世界

作者: 徐明星

一、思考

二、书摘

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自私的基因(R) 2017-12-01T23:00:00+00:00 GEEK4IT http://geek4it.com/自私的基因

2017-12-01 RATING: */10

自私的基因

作者: 理查德•道金斯 (Richard Dawkins)

一、思考

我们只是自私基因的生存机器,所有讨论都基于此。

不提倡以进化论为基础的道德观,亦不做本性对教养的辩论。

关于自私的定义是行为上的,不是主观意识上的。

二、书摘

1、自然选择的单位究竟是什么?生命中哪一层次是自然选择的单位,有着不可避免的“自私”?自私的种属?自私的群体?自私的生物体?自私的生态系统?我们可以争论这些层次中大多数单位的自私性,它们还都曾被一些作者全排肯定为自然选择的单位。但这都是错误的。如果一定要把达尔文主义简单概括为“自私的某物”,这本书以令人信服的理由层层推理得出,这个“某物”只能是基因。

2、我们以及其他一切动植物,都是各自的基因所创造的生存机器,目的是为了基因自身的复制。

成功的基因的一个最突出的特性,就是它的无情的自私性。

对整个物种来说,“普遍的爱”和“共同的利益”在进化论上简直是毫无意义的概念。

所谓的物质,是指那些原子的聚合体,它们具有足够的稳定性或普遍性而被人们赋予一个确定 名称 。

我们每一个人作为在这个世界上的生物个体的生存机器,最多能够活上几十年,但是世界上的基因可望生存的时间,不是以几十年计算,而是以千百年来计算的。

在通过有性生殖的物种中,作为遗传单位的生物个体因其体积太大而且寿命也太短,不能成为真正意义的自然选择单位。由生物个体所组成的生物群体甚至更大的单位,也不适合成为生物遗传的基本单位。在遗传学的意义上,生物的个体和群体像天空中的云彩,或者更像沙漠中的尘暴,转瞬即逝。它们都是一些临时的聚合体或联合体。

为什么我们不能永生?

成功基因所具有的普遍特性是:它们把生存机器的死亡至少推迟到生殖之后。由此,它们才能一代又一代地在生殖机器中存活下来。由此,如果一些致死基因/半致死基因在生殖之前活动,那么它们就会被自然选择淘汰。

那么什么样的致死/半致死基因可能不会被淘汰呢?作者认为那是在晚期活动的基因,让生殖机器——也就是人类,先生殖再活动,得以遗传下去,逃过了自然选择的网。人类的年老体衰正是基因库中晚期活动致死基因和半致死基因的一种累积副产品。

关于延长人类寿命的两个畅想!晚婚晚育,把寿命提高到几个世纪;愚弄基因

除掉你的竞争对手可能不是一件好事 ,想想现在你和B有共同的竞争对手A,实力上是B>你>A。我们知道动物捕食时总是倾向于吃掉弱者,如果你除掉了A,那么你很可能就代替A成为B的猎物。

养儿子不如养兄弟?从亲缘关系指数来看,一个同卵兄弟=两个儿女/兄弟=4个孙子。从自私基因的角度,要想让你的基因尽可能地传递下去,抚养你的弟弟和生育你的孩子亲缘关系是没有区别的,而抚养你的同卵同胞兄弟比抚养你的儿子来的更划算,在基因收益上前者是后者的两倍。

母爱比父爱更伟大? 在漫长的进化过程中,性细胞朝着两个不同的方向进化,一个方向进化成为大体积的、富含营养物质的卵子,另一个方向进化成为小体积的、活动灵活的精子。几乎不含营养物质的精子与卵子结合,似乎从生命的一开始,母亲的付出就比父亲要多。 母亲会更爱自己的孩子吗?理论上是的。父与子同母与子的亲缘关系指数相同,这里还需要考虑到另外的指数——肯定性指数。母亲对于子女是自己亲生的肯定性指数无疑比父亲要高,母亲可以确定孩子是她生出来的,也倾向于为子女付出更多,而父亲却没有这种把握孩子一定是他的,而不是别的什么男人的,比如隔壁老王。

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清单革命(R) 2017-11-30T23:00:00+00:00 GEEK4IT http://geek4it.com/清单革命

2017-11-30 RATING: 7/10

清单革命

作者:阿图•葛文德 (Atul Gawande)

一、思考

1、将自己的知识体系总结梳理成一个个的清单,如开会清单、阅读书籍清单、研究产品清单、周末清单、砍价清单、和下属沟通绩效清单… 将知识结构化,整理成简洁有效的清单,清单就是方法论。

2、人的一辈子都是在做重复的事情,重复的行为、重复的犯错… 当要重复去做某些事情,那么直接按照清单执行就可以了,而行为清单也在不断地迭代优化中,保证每次做事情都是在更新迭代,而不是重复。

3、思考做事情的方法论,培养一种庖丁解牛式的、化繁为简、第一次就把事情做做对的思维和方法。

4、以每日为频度观察自己、审思自己、否定自己,自己犯的错就是最好的导师,自己就是最好的实践操场。日更月跌,进化的复利效应就会体现出来。很多人活了一辈子,从来没有对自己进行过深刻的反思。

5、所谓的工匠精神,其实没那么神秘,本质是对一件事情或方法的反复推演和严格执行。《清单革命》是一种有效的刻意练习。

二、书摘

1、清单最重要的作用是让人们持续正确安全的把事情做好。

2、人类的错误主要分为两大类,一类是“无知之错”,一类是“无能之错”。“无知之错”是因为我们没有掌握正确知识而犯下的错误。“无能之错”是因为我们掌握了正确知识却没有正确使用而犯下的错误。

3、清单为我们提供了一种认识防护网,能够抓住每个人生来就有的认知缺陷,例如,记忆不完整或者注意力不集中。清单是简单而直接的方法迫使必要行为发生,清单能塑造行为。

4、随着科学的发展、知识的积累,人类的错误已经逐渐原来由原来的无知之错逐渐倾向于无能之错。无知之错可以被原谅,无能之错是不能被原谅的,但是在人类所有的实践领域中,知识及其复杂性与日俱增,同样,人们正确实施所掌握的知识的难度也在与日俱增。知识的确拯救我们,但也让我们不堪重负。

5、我们每个人都会犯错,无论我们进行多么细致的专业分工和培训,一些关键的步骤还是会被忽略,一些错误还是无法避免。

6、清单从来都不是大而全的操作手册,而是理性选择后的思维工具。抓取关键,不仅是基准绩效的保证,更是高绩效的保证。

7、清单会提醒我们不要忘记一些必要的步骤,并让操作者明白该干什么。这不仅是一种检查方法,而且还是一种保障高水平绩效的纪律。

8、团队的力量是巨大的。不再是单枪匹马,不再听命于唯我独尊的大师,而是依靠团队的智慧。一个人免不了会犯错,一群人犯错的可能性会变得小一些。

9、清单革命的行事原则

  1. 权利下放

在面对极端复杂的问题时,高层应该尽可能把权力下放给一线人员,而不是将大全集中在自己手中。极端复杂的问题本来就是出乎人们意料的,对于此类问题,传统的中央集权处理范式是行不通的。每个人都是清单的主宰者和参与者。

  1. 简单至上

从来没有全面的高效,从来没有一张清单能涵盖所有情况,冗长而含糊不清的清单是无法高效并安全执行的。清单要素是遴选,必须坚守简单、可测、高效三大原则,二不是“无所不包”。

  1. 人为根本

清单的力量是有限的。在最危急的情况下,解决问题的主角毕竟是人而不是清单,是人的主观能动性在建立防范错误的科学。

编制清单必须注意的6大要点:

  • 设定清晰的检查点
  • 选择合适的清单类型
  • 简明扼要,不宜太长
  • 清单的用语要做到精炼、准确
  • 清单的版式整洁,切记杂乱无章
  • 必须在现实中接受检验。
  1. 持续改善

10、清单需要不断更新,简洁和有效永远是矛盾的联合体,只有持续改善,才能让清单始终确保安全、正确和稳定。

11、航空业的稳定运行本质都是一张清单的胜利。

12、最简单的清单也需要不断改进。简洁和有效永远是矛盾的联合体,只有持续改善,才能让清单始终确保安全、正确和稳定。

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活法(R) 2017-11-26T23:00:00+00:00 GEEK4IT http://geek4it.com/活法

2017-11-26 RATING: */10

活法

作者:稻盛和夫

一、思考

二、书摘

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创世纪(R) 2017-11-25T23:00:00+00:00 GEEK4IT http://geek4it.com/创世纪

2017-11-25 RATING: 9/10

创世纪

作者:塞巴斯提奥·萨尔加多

一、思考

已经从最高点和最低点看到了世界,已经到过所有的地方,发现了矿物、植物和动物,之后,得以看到我们全人类,我们人类诞生之初。

二、书摘

萨尔加多属于巴西开始工业化时期成长的一代人,从年轻时代起便十分关注社会问题。因此,他从开始出道就注重社会纪实项目。

萨尔加多在摄影中逐步形成了自己独到的眼光。他的构图风格是贴近被摄主体用广角镜头将它们置于画面的前景,以产生视觉的冲击力;常常站在一个至高点,采用居高临下的角度拍摄宏大的场景,如无数细小如蚂蚁的金矿工人徒手搬运矿沙的景观。他的作品只采用黑白摄影,喜欢用浓重的云层和光效增加画面的气氛,并借用基督教的意象来传递宗教的精神。

新闻报道摄影第一要素是要尽可能客观真实地报道新闻事件及其背后的故事,而构图和光效等唯美的要素则处于相对次要的地位。但是,萨氏却对新闻事件进行过度审美,尤其是对大饥荒、流行病和灭绝种族等天灾人祸的事件,他仍然将追求美感放在了寻找真相的前面。他的作品总是给人以视觉上的强烈美感,而淡化了揭示新闻故事背后的原因。

萨尔加多喜欢借用基督教中的偶像和十字架等意象来渲染其作品中的宗教气氛,试图将其苦难的主题提升到神性的审美高度。

摄影唯一丑陋之处,就是被拍摄者正在遭遇的痛苦。

他的镜头是打开的心眼,在最细微处直视灵魂,看到巴西巨坑五万掏金者的集体面相,看到科威特油井冲天大火的真正英雄,看到非洲的死亡延续着生存。每次的拍摄方案都是经年的万里长征,是人神共舞,每次成果都引起巨大回响。

你知道应该在什么场合承认自己的渺小?在上帝面前,在智慧面前,在美面前,在大自然面前,但不是在人群面前。在人群中应该意识到自己的尊严。

鲁克斯山脉东部,高度超过9800英尺。北极国家野生动物保护区。美国阿拉斯加, 2009年。

马达加斯加海湾的猴面包树,小岛在海面上十分孤立,而面包树屹立在岛上,显得十分特别,西印度洋。

PS:

[The silent drama of photography Sebastião Salgado](https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qH4GAXXH29s)
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干法(R) 2017-11-22T23:00:00+00:00 GEEK4IT http://geek4it.com/干法

2017-11-22 RATING: 8/10

干法

作者:稻盛和夫

一、思考

1.对工作充满热情;

2.痴迷于产品;

3.善于向优秀的人学习;

4.积极进取的态度;

5.优秀的价值观。

二、书摘

六项精进:

精进第一重:付出不逊于任何人的努力。(儒家的天行健,努力工作磨练灵魂。)

精进第二重:谦虚戒躁。(儒家的“谦受益”,佛家的去五毒之一的“慢”。)

精进第三重:每日反省。(儒家的修心修身,“每日三省吾身”,有过则改。)

精进第四重:对生活怀有感恩之心。(佛家的爱心和慈悲心,儒家的仁爱之心。)

精进第五重:积善行,思利他。(佛家的积德行善,利他,“积善之家必有余庆”,善有善报。儒家的己所不欲勿施于人。)

精进第六重:不为感性所困。(佛家的烦恼即菩提。正确对待所遭遇的一切并接受它。)

要想拥有一个充实的人生,你只有两种选择:一种是“从事自己喜欢的工作”,另一种则是“让自己喜欢上工作”。一个人能够碰上自己喜欢的工作的几率,恐怕不足“千分之一”、“万分之一 ”。而且,即使进了自己所期望的公司,要能从事自己所期望的工作,这样幸运的机会几乎没有。

工作能够磨砺心性,工作是人生最尊贵、最重要、最有价值的行为。

人为什么活着呢?提升心性,磨练灵魂,度过更加美好的人生。

让自己拥有一颗纯洁美好的心灵,倾注自己全部的热情,发挥自己天赋的才能。这就是人生获得巨大成果的秘诀,就是人生成功的王道,就是人生幸福的源泉,因为这种人生态度符合天道,符合宇宙的法则。

人生与工作的结果=思维方式X热情X能力。

解决问题的答案总是在现场。当一个人以不服输的高度热情投入产品研发之中,在对其进行全然的审视、倾听、专注当中,往往会听到“产品的私语”,找到解决问题的办法。

比如一把锥子通过力量凝聚在最前端的一点上,这种“集中力”,是根据思考能力的强度、深度、大小产生的。当我们有了清晰的追求目标,实现目标的渴望又特别强烈和持续,对现实工作的细节有着全然的敏感和全然的倾听时,这种现场的神灵就会显现。

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Principles(R) 2017-11-19T23:00:00+00:00 GEEK4IT http://geek4it.com/Principles

2017-11-19 RATING: 10/10

Principles

作者:Ray Dalio

一、思考

二、书摘

Part 1: The Importance of Principles

Why are principles important?

Esssiential for getting what we want out of life.

If we want to understand each other.we need ot understand each other’s principles.

All successful people have principles.

Without principles you will be forced to react to circumstances that you don’t know what you value

most,and how to get what you want most.this will prevent you from making most of your life.

Without principles ,people in groups will not understand how to behave consistent with others.

What are principles?

Allow your action consistent with your values.(values are about what you consider is important ). They like beacons guide you behaviors and help you face hard choices.

How to get principles?

Forge them by yourself from our own experiences and reflections on those experiences.

Accept others’ principles ,even holistic packaged principles.(it is not necessarily a bad thing to use others’ principles,but having others’ without much thought may lead a risk of inconsistency to your true values. )

Part 2: My Most Fundamental Life Principles

My Most Fundamental Life Principles

Time is like a river that will take you forward into encounters with reality that will require you to make decisions. You can’t stop the movement down this river, and you can’t avoid the encounters. You can only approach these encounters in the best way possible. (That is what this part is all about.)

In order to be motivated, I needed to work for what I wanted, not for what other people wanted me to do. And in order to be successful, I needed to figure out for myself how to get what I wanted, not remember the facts I was being told to remember.

The consensus is often wrong, so I have to be an independent thinker. To make any money, you have to be right when they’re wrong.

I want you to work for yourself, to come up with independent opinions, to stress-test them, to be wary about being overconfident, and to reflect on the consequences of your decisions and constantly improve.

  • 1) Working for what I wanted, not for what others wanted me to do; 2) coming up with the best independent opinions I could muster to move toward my goals; 3) stresstesting my opinions by having the smartest people I could find challenge them so I could find out where I was wrong; 4) being wary about overconfidence, and good at not knowing; and 5) wrestling with reality, experiencing the results of my decisions, and reflecting on what I did to produce them so that I could improve.
  • I learned that finding out what is true, regardless of what that is, including all the stuff most people think is bad.
  • I learned that there is nothing to fear from truth.
  • I learned that being truthful was an extension of my freedom to be me.
  • I learned that everyone makes mistakes and has weaknesses and that one of the most important things that differentiates people is their approach to handling them.

In short, I learned that being totally truthful, especially about mistakes and weaknesses, led to a rapid rate of improvement and movement toward what I wanted.

While most others seem to believe that learning what we are taught is the path to success, I believe that figuring out for yourself what you want and how to get it is a better path.

While most others seem to believe that having answers is better than having questions, I believe that having questions is better than having answers because it leads to more learning.

While most others seem to believe that mistakes are bad things, I believe mistakes are good things because I believe that most learning comes via making mistakes and reflecting on them.

While most others seem to believe that finding out about one’s weaknesses is a bad thing, I believe that it is a good thing because it is the first step toward finding out what to do about them and not letting them stand in your way.

While most others seem to believe that pain is bad, I believe that pain is required to become stronger.

My Most Fundamental Principles

My most fundamental principle: Truth — more precisely, an accurate understanding of reality — is the essential foundation for producing good outcomes.

This perspective gives me a non-traditional sense of good and bad: “good,” to me, means operating consistently with the natural laws, while “bad” means operating inconsistently with these laws.

I believe that evolution, which is the natural movement toward better adaptation, is the greatest single force in the universe, and that it is good.

I believe that the desire to evolve, i.e., to get better, is probably humanity’s most pervasive driving force.

It is natural for us to seek other things or to seek to make the things we have better.

In other words, the sequence of 1) seeking new things (goals); 2) working and learning in the process of pursuing these goals; 3) obtaining these goals; and 4) then doing this over and over again is the personal evolutionary process that fulfills most of us and moves society forward.

I believe that pursuing self-interest in harmony with the laws of the universe and contributing to evolution is universally rewarded.

Self-interest and society’s interests are generally symbiotic: more than anything else, it is pursuit of self interest that motivates people to push themselves to do the difficult things that benefit them and that contribute to society. In return, society rewards those who give it what it wants. That is why how much money people have earned is a rough measure of how much they gave society what it wanted—NOT how much they desired to make money.

Most of us are born with attributes that both help us and hurt us, depending on their applications, and the more extreme the attribute, the more extreme the potential good and bad outcomes these attributes are likely to produce.

In nature everything was made for a purpose, and so too were these different ways of thinking.

The most importantly to understand one’s own values and abilities—and then to find the right fits.

The most important quality that differentiates successful people from unsuccessful people is our capacity to learn and adapt to these things.

As a result of them, most people don’t like reflecting on their weaknesses even though recognizing them is an essential step toward preventing them from causing them problems. Most people especially dislike others exploring their weaknesses because it makes them feel attacked, which produces fight or flight reactions.

It is tragic when people let ego barriers lead them to experience bad outcomes.

The Personal Evolutionary Process

The quality of our lives depends on the quality of the decisions we make.

We aren’t born with the ability to make good decisions; we learn it.

Reality + Dreams + Determination = A Successful Life

What is essential is that you are clear about what you want and that you figure out how to get it.

This basic principle suggests that you can follow one of two paths to happiness:

  • Have high expectations and strive to exceed them;
  • Lower your expectations so that they are at or below your conditions.

Most of us choose the first path, which means that to be happy we have to keep evolving.

The quality of our lives depends on the quality of the decisions we make.

Most learning comes from making mistakes, reflecting on the causes of the mistakes, and learning what to do differently in the future. Believe it or not, you are lucky to feel the pain if you approach it correctly, because it will signal that you need to find solutions and to progress.

Pain + Reflection = Progress

People who worry about looking good typically hide what they don’t know and hide their weaknesses, so they never learn how to properly deal with them and these weaknesses remain impediments in the future. 

People who are interested in making the best possible decisions rarely are confident that they have the best possible answers.

Your Two Yous and Your Machine

Those who are most successful are capable of “higher level thinking”.

I call it “higher level thinking” because your perspective is of one who is looking down on at your machine and yourself objectively.

Think of it as though there are two yous—you as the designer and overseer of the plan to achieve your goals (let’s call that one you(1)) and you as one of the participants in pursuing that mission (which we will call you(2)). You(2) are a resource that you(1) have to get what you(1) want, but by no means your only resource. To be successful you(1) have to be objective about you(2).

If you(1) see that you(2) are not capable of doing something, it is only sensible for you(1) to have someone else do it. In other words, you(1) should look down on you(2) and all the other resources at your(1) disposal and create a “machine” to achieve your(1) goals, remembering that you(1) don’t necessarily need to do anything other than to design and manage the machine to get what you(1) want. If you(1) find that you(2) can’t do something well fire yourself(2) and get a good replacement! You shouldn’t be upset that you found out that you(2) are bad at that—you(1) should be happy because you(1) have improved your(1) chances of getting what you(1) want. If you(1) are disappointed because you(2) can’t be the best person to do everything, you(1) are terribly naïve because nobody can do everything well.

The biggest mistake most people make is to not see themselves and others objectively. If they could just get around this, they could live up to their potentials.

My 5-Step Process to Getting What You Want Out of Life

“The Process” consists of five distinct steps: a) Have clear goals. b) Identify and don’t tolerate the problems that stand in the way of achieving your goals. c) Accurately diagnose these problems. d) Design plans that explicitly lay out tasks that will get you around your problems and on to your goals. e) Implement these plans—i.e., do these tasks.

A few general points about the process: a) You must approach these as distinct steps rather than blur them together. b) Each of these five steps requires different talents and disciplines. c) It is essential to approach this process in a very clear-headed, rational way rather than emotionally.

Treat your life like a game or a martial art. Your mission is to figure out how to get around your challenges to get to your goals. In the process of playing the game or practicing this martial art, you will become more skilled. As you get better, you will progress to ever-higher levels of the game that will require—and teach you—greater skills.

By and large, life will give you what you deserve and it doesn’t give a damn what you “like.” So it is up to you to take full responsibility to connect what you want with what you need to do to get it, and then to do those things—which often are difficult but produce good results—so that you’ll then deserve to get what you want.

The 5 Steps Close-Up

1) Setting Goals

You can have virtually anything you want, but you can’t have everything you want.

To achieve your goals you have to prioritize, and that includes rejecting good alternatives (so that you have the time and resources to pursue even better ones—time being probably your greatest limiting factor, though, through leverage, you can substantially reduce time’s constraints).

Failing to make the distinction between goals and desires will lead you in the wrong direction, because you will be inclined to pursue things you want that will undermine your ability to get things you want more. In short, you can pursue anything you desire—just make sure that you know the consequences of what you are doing.

Another common reason people fail at this stage is that they lose sight of their goals, getting caught up in day-to-day tasks.

In other words, there is almost no reason not to succeed if you take the attitude of 1) total flexibility—good answers can come from anyone or anywhere (and in fact, as I have mentioned, there are far more good answers “out there” than there are in you) and 2) total accountability: regardless of where the good answers come from, it’s your job to find them.

Generally speaking, goal-setting is best done by those who are good at big-picture conceptual thinking, synthesizing, visualizing, and prioritizing. But whatever your strengths and weaknesses are, don’t forget the big and really great news here: it is not essential that you have all of these qualities yourself, because you can supplement them with the help of others.

In summary, in order to get what you want, the first step is to really know what you want, without confusing goals with desires, and without limiting yourself because of some imagined impediments that you haven’t thoroughly analyzed.

You can ask the people around you for help—or even ask them to do the things you don’t do well.

2) Identifying and Not Tolerating Problems

Most problems are potential improvements screaming at you.

The more painful the problem, the louder it is screaming.In order to be successful, you have to 1) perceive problems and 2) not tolerate them.

It is essential to bring problems to the surface. Most people don’t like to do this. But most successful people know that they have to do this. The most common reasons people don’t successfully identify their problems are generally rooted either in a lack of will or in a lack of talent or skill.

When identifying problems, it is important to remain centered and logical.

Remember that the pains you are feeling are “growing pains” that will test your character and reward you if you push through them. Try to look at your problems as a detached observer would. Remember that identifying problems is like finding gems embedded in puzzles; if you solve the puzzles you will get the gems that will make your life much better. Doing this continuously will lead to your rapid evolution. So, if you’re logical, you really should get excited about finding problems because identifying them will bring you closer to your goals.

Be very precise in specifying your problems.

Don’t confuse problems with causes.

Once you identify your problems, you must not tolerate them.

People who are good at this step—identifying and not tolerating problems—tend to have strong abilities to perceive and synthesize a clear and accurate picture, as well as demonstrate a fierce intolerance of badness (regardless of the severity).

3) Diagnosing the Problems

You will be much more effective if you focus on diagnosis and design rather than jumping to solutions.

You must be calm and logical.

You must get at the root causes.

Root causes, like principles, are things that manifest themselves over and over again as the deep-seated reasons behind the actions that cause problems.

Identifying the real root causes of your problems is essential because you can eliminate your problems only by removing their root causes. In other words, you must understand, accept, and successfully deal with reality in order to move toward your goals.

To be successful, you must be willing to look at your own behavior and the behavior of others as possible causes of problems.

The most important qualities for successfully diagnosing problems are logic, the ability to see multiple possibilities, and the willingness to touch people’s nerves to overcome the ego barriers that stand in the way of truth.

4) Designing the Plan (Determining the Solutions)

Most of the movement toward your goals comes from designing how to remove the root causes of your problems. Problems are great because they are very specific impediments, so you know that you will move forward if you can identify and eliminate their root causes.

Creating a design is like writing a movie script in that you visualize who will do what through time in order to achieve the goal.

Then write down the plan so you don’t lose sight of it, and include who needs to do what and when. The list of tasks falls out from this story (i.e., the plan), but they are not the same. The story, or plan, is what connects your goals to the tasks. For you to succeed, you must not lose sight of the goals or the story while focusing on the tasks; you must constantly refer back and forth.

When designing your plan, think about the timelines of various interconnected tasks. Sketch them out loosely and then refine them with the specific tasks. This is an iterative process, alternating between sketching out your broad steps (e.g., hire great people) and filling these in with more specific tasks with estimated timelines (e.g., in the next two weeks choose the headhunters to find the great people) that will have implications (e.g., costs, time, etc.). These will lead you to modify your design sketch until the design and tasks work well together. Being as specific as possible (e.g., specifying who will do what and when) allows you to visualize how the design will work at both a big-picture level and in detail. It will also give you and others the to-do lists and target dates that will help direct you.

Remember: Designing precedes doing!

5) Doing the Tasks

It is critical to know each day what you need to do and have the discipline to do it.

People who are good at this stage can reliably execute a plan. They tend to be self-disciplined and proactive rather than reactive to the blizzard of daily tasks that can divert them from execution. They are results-oriented: they love to push themselves over the finish line to achieve the goal.

As with the other steps, if you aren’t good at this step, get help. There are many successful, creative people who are good at the other steps but who would have failed because they aren’t good at execution. But they succeeded nonetheless because of great symbiotic relationships with highly reliable task-doers.

The Relationships between These Steps

Goals are the sole purpose of designs and tasks.

To remember the connections between the tasks and the goals that they are meant to achieve, you just have to ask, “Why?” It is good to connect tasks to goals this way (with the “Why?”), because losing sight of the connections will prevent you from succeeding.

Again, this 5-Step Process is iterative. This means that after completing one of the steps you will probably have acquired relevant information that leads you to modify the other steps.

Weaknesses Don’t Matter if You Find Solutions

To repeat, the best advice I can give you is to ask yourself what you want, then ask ‘what is true,’ and then ask yourself ‘what should be done about it.’ If you honestly ask and answer these questions you will move much faster towards what you want to get out of life than if you don’t!

Most importantly, ask yourself what is your biggest weakness that stands in the way of what you want.

When you encounter that pain, try to remember that you can get what you want out of life if you can open-mindedly reflect, with the help of others, on what is standing in your way and then deal with it.

Being weak at any one of these steps is not a problem if you understand what you are weak at and successfully compensate for that weakness by seeking help.

It is easy to find out what weaknesses are standing in your way by 1) identifying which steps you are failing at and 2) getting the feedback of people who are successful at doing what you are having problems with.

In a nutshell, my 5-Step process for achieving what you want is: Values -> 1) Goals -> 2) Problems -> 3) Diagnoses -> 4) Designs -> 5) Tasks

Your values determine what you want, i.e., your goals. In trying to achieve your goals, you will encounter problems that have to be diagnosed. Only after determining the real root causes of these problems can you design a plan to get around them. Once you have a good plan, you have to muster the self-discipline to do what is required to make the plan succeed. Note that this process starts with your values, but it requires that you succeed at all five steps. While these steps require different abilities, you don’t have to be good at all of them. If you aren’t good at all of them (which is true for almost everyone), you need to know what you are bad at and how to compensate for your weaknesses. This requires you to put your ego aside, objectively reflect on your strengths and weaknesses, and seek the help from others.

Life is like a game where you seek to overcome the obstacles that stand in the way of achieving your goals.

You get better at this game through practice.

The game consists of a series of choices that have consequences.

You can’t stop the problems and choices from coming at you, so it’s better to learn how to deal with them.

You have the freedom to make whatever choices you want, though it’s best to be mindful of their consequences.

The pain of problems is a call to find solutions rather than a reason for unhappiness and inaction, so it’s silly, pointless, and harmful to be upset at the problems and choices that come at you (though it’s understandable).

The process goes better if you are as accurate as possible in all respects, including assessing your strengths and weaknesses and adapting to them.

Part 3: My Management Principles

PS:

TED: How The Economic Machine Works

Tony Robbins interviews billionaire Ray Dalio - author of Principles

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商战(R) 2017-11-18T23:00:00+00:00 GEEK4IT http://geek4it.com/商战

2017-11-18 RATING: 8/10

商战

作者:阿尔•里斯 (Al Ries) ,‎ 杰克•特劳特 (Jack Trout)

一、思考

之前的关注点都是在“向内求索”,关注与产品质量、团队支援、执行环节,没有将视野放到制高点上。虽然质量上乘、以用户为中心的需求和服务是产品/商业竞争的基础,但是在物品极大丰富,产品、服务同质化严重的今天,只有占领住用户心智的“制高点”,才能赢取市场上的胜利,这需要具备竞争战略的洞察力和决断力。本书讲的就是如何利用军事战略思想占领用户心智的“制高点”的书。

大半创始人和 CEO 在自己没想清楚该怎么办或看不清路的时候,都会选择钻进很多细节和执行事务中去,怀揣的则是多少是一种 “我要以我在执行层面的发挥来掩盖我在战略和定位上的无能” 又或是 “我没想明白没关系,但不能让兄弟们看出来我没想明白” 的心态。

身为创始人或管理者,只有自己对于一件事或一个问题已经想得很清楚有了很深的理解,此时再找人来配合你实现,才可能更靠谱更可行。

领导该做的事情:树立目标,拆分事项,预判结果,定义成败,梳理整体战略,布置局部战术,调度人力。

颠覆的力量从来不是来自于主流的、热门的市场,而是来自于边缘地带,来自于侧翼。

二、书摘

商业本质并非为顾客服务,而是在同竞争对手的对垒过程中,以智取胜、以强取胜。简言之,商业就是战争,在这场战争中,敌人就是竞争对手,战场就是顾客的心智,顾客就是要占领的要地。

传统的概念让人认为企业营销必须满足消费者的需要和需求。而这个观念有个错误的假设就是:用户非常清楚自己需要什么。如果这个假设成立,那么市场上的产品形态将会一模一样,而商业竞争的胜利必然属于在市场调研中做最更好的一方。这个假设明显是错误的,顾客访谈不可能构想出“新”的产品,绝大多数人都会在过去的经验中去找答案,他们会把领导者的做法当做最好的答案,所以确认顾客需求不可能帮助落后者与领导者相抗衡。“顾客是上帝”的理念是错的。

商战是在心智中进行的。每天,战争在你自己的心智中以及你顾客的心智中都在进行着。这是理解商业竞争本质的关键概念。

在作战前,一位优秀的将军总是要先仔细研究地形。他要研究每座山、每个丘陵、每条河可以用以防御和进攻的可能性。一位优秀的将军还要探察敌情。在战斗打响前,这位将军已经把敌军每个分队的确切位置和兵力部署情况在地图上标注,并进行了仔细研究。而在商战中,侦察工作非常困难。你怎么能探测一个人的心智?怎么能看清其中的地形和对手占据的强势位置呢?

侦察人的心智的一个方法是进行市场调研。这并不是让你用传统的方式问顾客想买什么,这种方法已经过时了。你所应该做的是探察其他公司在顾客心智中占据了什么位置,要指出是哪家公司在占据客户心智的制高点。绘制出心智地图能让你拥有一种极大的优势:你大部分的竞争对手甚至还不知道战场在哪儿呢。他们完全被他们自己的营地拴住手脚,比如他们的产品、他们的销售队伍还有他们自己的销售计划。

战略的目标是什么?如何能算是占领了战场的制高点呢?目标是,让用户将公司品牌与某类产品直接产生挂钩。当一位顾客用某个品牌代表某类产品,你就知道他心智中的山头已经完全被该品牌占领了。

商战并非只有一种,而是有四种。采取哪种形式取决于你在战略格局中的位置,每个产品品类或行业都会形成这种战略格局。政治家和指挥官必须要做的首要的、最高的和最有深远意义的判断,是确定他们正在进行的战争的战略形式。既不能做出错误判断,又不能让判断同其本质背道而驰。

<1>防御战 —— 适用于市场领导者。

原则1:只有市场领导者才能打防御战。

原则2:最佳的防御就是有勇气攻击自己。

原则3:强大的进攻必须加以封锁。



<2>进攻战 —— 适用于处于第二位的企业。

原则1:领导者位置的强势是重要的考量因素。

原则2:在领导者强势中发现弱点,并对此发起攻击。

原则3:在尽可能狭窄的阵地上发动进攻。



<3>侧翼战 —— 适用于再小一些的企业。

原则1:最佳的侧翼行动应该在无争地带进行。

原则2:战术奇袭应当是计划中重要的部分。

原则3:追击与进攻同等重要。



<4>游击战 —— 适用于本地或区域企业。

原则1:找到一个细分市场,要小得足以守得住。

原则2:不管有多么成功,永远不要像领导者那样行动。

原则3:随时准备撤退。

让我们重新看一看心智中的战场。当然,山头是被领导者占领的制高点。

如果你想翻越这座山,那就意味着你要打一场进攻战。你满怀希望,可能会找到一个峡谷或一个山隘作为突破的地方。但是战斗会非常残酷,代价会很高,因为那个市场领导者通常已经具备足够的资源来发起强大的反攻。

如果你是冲下山,去阻止进攻,那么你打的是防御战,其规则是:最好的防御就是有效的攻击。

如果你在山地间迂回,那么你打的是侧翼战,这种战争通常最奏效,并且花费最小。但是在许多种产品种类中,发动优秀的侧翼战的机会越来越少。

如果你在山下盘桓,那么你打的是一场游击战。你要寻找一块防守得住的安全市场,或者领导者懒得进入的一小块市场。

大多数公司都应该采取游击战。一般来说,在每100家公司中只有1家应该打防御战,2家打进攻战,3家进行侧翼战,剩下的94家都应打游击战。

许多商业将领总是犯同样的错误,陷入“优秀员工”和“更好产品”的错误观念中。他们会强调执行力、强调优秀员工的作用、强调更好的产品更好的用户体验,认为只要做好这些,就可以赢得商战。

许多公司都紧抱着优秀员工战略不放,他们坚信能招募到比竞争对手更优秀的员工,以为制订更好的培训计划能让他们保住人才优势。但是,公司越大,普通的员工越会成为平均水准,在巨型企业里,集结一个完全由优秀员工组成的队伍的可能性几乎为零。

在许多企业管理者心智中另一个根深蒂固的错误观念是,他们认为用比别人更好的产品能打赢商战。我们把这种思维叫做“由内而外的思维”。公司很清楚自己产品更好的“事实”,以为广告商或销售队伍也能用这种事实澄清扎根在客户心智中的错误观念。但到底什么才是事实呢?事实就是顾客脑子里的认知。可能这不是你认同的事实,但这是唯一你得应付的事实。你得让用户知晓你的“好处”,但这其实得营销,而不是靠产品自身是否“更优秀”。

为什么你会有这两个错误观念?因为你听过很多已经成功的人在宣扬这两个观念,号称是这两个观念帮助他们取得了成功。但事实上,即使遵循了这两个观念,仍然失败了的人可能多得多,但失败者没有话语权。不管是战争史还是商业史,都是由胜者写的,而非败者,强权即真理。赢家的产品是否真的更好呢?赢家的人才是否真的更加优秀呢?不见得。但赢家通常是这么宣传自己的成功之道的,也就让更多的听者信以为真。

优秀的领导者知道高昂的士气能创造出势能,一个获胜的军队才会再次凯旋。巴顿将军说:“现在我们有世界上最好的食物、最精良的装备、最佳的士气、还有最棒的士兵。你知道吗?天哪,我还真可怜我们要对付的那帮杂种。”这是领导者艺术,而不是战略。领导对员工说:“没有你,我们一事无成。”而战略家心里要明白:“没有你,我们照样也行。”企业管理者们仍然混淆领导力和战略,而这对那些领导者是有利的。领导力和战略之间的混淆,会让很多公司误入歧途。

每家成功的公司都找到了一个使自己取得成功的秘密武器”,而这个武器是不会公开的。很多时候,胜者的发言稿,不过是政治正确的废话而已,真正的秘密才不会告诉别人。

虽然“优秀的员工”和“更好的产品”这些都重要,虽然有愿意为公司去牺牲的斗志和精神也很重要,但其实都并不是最重要的。商战真正最重要的第一原则,是兵力原则。

兵力原则:必须在决定性的地点投入尽可能多的军队进行战斗。

历史上,绝大多数情况都是兵力强大的一方获胜。永远首先尽可能瞄准这一根本原则,必须在决定性的地点投入尽可能多的军队进行战斗。战争哲学的基本要义:在第一时间,让最多的人到达战场。

一个将军只有在深入、详尽地了解了战场情况之后,才有可能制定出真正有效的战略。商战战略应该从市场一线的泥泞中发展出来,而不是出自象牙塔内的臆想。那种远离战场、脱离实际的将军和坐在会议室里的某些首席执行官是同类人物。

心智就是战场,心智中没有“事实”一说,只有认知,而认知就是事实。产品只是承载战略的工具,你不能从更好的角度思考问题,只能从差异上进行思考。如果你没有占顾客心智中制高点的话,只有一个好产品是远远不够的,胜利通常属于控制了顾客心智阵地的那一方。

战略和时机是商业竞争的制高点,所有其他方面都是细枝末节。

放弃你的失败品牌,集中资源于你的优势品牌,几乎总是最有效的战略。

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颠覆者(R) 2017-11-11T23:00:00+00:00 GEEK4IT http://geek4it.com/颠覆者

2017-11-11 RATING: 8/10

颠覆者

作者:周鸿祎、范海涛

一、思考

叛逆,颠覆,狂热,坦诚,思想活跃,争强好胜,善于阅读反思,产品用户思维。

热情,兴趣是心中不灭的火种,星星之火,可以燎原!

第一阶段:中小学的调皮捣蛋、叛逆但是却很学霸阶段。在此期间,对于计算机编程的痴迷已经初露端倪;

第二阶段:大学、研究生阶段。依旧贯穿了他的叛逆性格。有心栽花花不开,却又无心插柳柳成荫的被保送西安交大后,由于一次打架事件,初尝了商业的美好滋味。进而读研时开始了自己的初次创业。但是不幸的是,都以失败告终。他把原因归结为自己的不够专注。

第三阶段:方正打工阶段。尝到创业失败的滋味后,周鸿祎选择暂时隐藏自己的野心,先进入一家大公司深造学习一下,待到羽翼丰满再度出山。并在此期间结实了自己后来的妻子。

第四阶段:创办3721,并将之打造成中国第一家盈利的互联网公司。甚至在经济危机的时候,也依然屹立不倒。但是却由于自己的“执拗与清高”,错失搜索引擎的风口。这给后来把3721卖给雅虎打下了伏笔。

第五阶段:雅虎中国职业经理人生涯。3721卖给雅虎中国后,先期获得50%的股权变现,后面的50%均等分为2年变现,变现条件分别为雅虎中国要在第一年盈利1000万美金,第二年盈利2500美金。无论美方百般刁难,以红衣教主的强悍作风,无论多么艰难,第一年的任务还是超额完成了。因此第一个25%股权变现安全落袋。但是雅虎的外企作风让红衣教主在接下来的日子里疲惫不堪,因此主动辞职。而辞职的代价就是剩下的25%股权变现不能平安落袋。而是以一个复杂的计算公式最终以9000万美金收场。

第六阶段,成为一名投资人。这个阶段属于周鸿祎人生的过渡,目的在于洗去之前创业时的所有疲惫和委屈。蛰伏一段时间后,便投入到自己充当天使投资人而投资的奇虎公司。当时奇虎的老大是齐向东。

第七阶段,奇虎360阶段。由于自己的财务自由以及投资人的关系人脉,奇虎在创业之初就拿到很多钱。然而正如周鸿祎自述:创业不会因为你怀胎十月生过第一个孩子,而在生第二胎的时候就只用两个月。期间的痛苦和坎坷一点也少不了。做社区搜索并没有想象的那么成功。反而是为了洗清自己“流氓软件教父”这个耻辱而无意中以10人小团队做的杀毒软件雏形,成为了后来成就宏图霸业的关键。

第八阶段,360所向披靡。3Q大战以及奇虎360用4个月的时间登陆纽交所!

二、书摘

所谓英雄,就是超越了阶层出身、超越了周边环境、超越了性格局限,拒绝按照任何设定好的程序行事,不能被大数据预测,能给世界带来惊喜、最不像机器人的人。

回想童年时代,调皮捣蛋爱挑事和海量阅读爱文章,看上去格格不入的两件事,就那么自然而然地发生在我身上。

“有人曾经说,也许周鸿祎是中国互联网界最像乔布斯的人。对于这点,我想他指的是老周的个性——一方面有着特立独行的叛逆思维,另一方面也有着对产品的极致完美追求,还有他不满意时就口不择言的直率。”

“颠覆”不是彻底对个人或者行业的毁灭,而是一种创新,一种成长的方式。颠覆观念比颠覆行为更重要。“如果有一天我变腐朽了,对现实妥协、不思进取,那些朝气蓬勃的年轻人可以来打败我。”

我不怕世界的变化,也不怕巨头的围剿。我怕的是失去了拼搏奋进的精神,被自己击倒。

互联网创业者作为其中一个“马拉松选手”,不应该看到现在这几场比赛就觉得格局已定,阶层固化已成定局。总有一天,旧的格局会被打破,会有新入者打破原有的平衡。正如凯文·凯利所说:“巨头体量越来越大,在短时间内这是自然而有利的,但长期来看,还是会有一些边缘化的公司颠覆产业。”“颠覆性技术永远在发生,而且是从边缘性的地方出现。这些颠覆性技术具有这些特点:质量低,高风险,利润低,市场小,未被证实的。没有人愿意进入。”

实现自我颠覆的人都有一点共性。最终能够实现这种颠覆的人,都有着强烈的“内在驱动力”和“使命感”

内在动力才真正体现了一个人的自由意志,我之所以这么干不是因为谁刺激我,而纯粹是因为我就想这么干。对于这些人来说,工作已经不是简单上下班的事了,而是一项事业。他们做这件事情不需要外界的监督和激励,是自己要求自己非把这件事情做成不可。所以真正了不起的事业应该由使命感驱动。

在早期阶段,如果有人问你的模式是什么。想得清很好,想不清就不要想了。还有人想得清,但可能想错了。

你每往前走一步,每上一个台阶,每当你拥有更多的资源和用户之后,你就会看到更多的机会。实际上一个商业模式,就是这样不断尝试、不断调整出来的。

如果脱离了用户谈商业模式,不是耍VC就是耍自己,最终也是耍自己。任何模式都源自于对用户的理解,对用户需求和痛点的理解。

谈论任何模式之前,你一定要做一个检验。换位思考一下,如果让你决定投资一个东西,你的第一反应,就是会把自己当成一个用户去体验:是不是愿意用这个产品?是不是打中了你的需求?用户思维可以作为对任何一个模式的判断标准。

在外企浸润了一段时间,我终于明白,很多人在跨国公司里工作,首先想的就是明哲保身。人们彬彬有礼地在邮件里踢着皮球,用非常礼貌、文雅的英文互相推诿责任。在年终聚会上,大家做出一堆眼花缭乱的PPT来麻醉自己,这个团队都像是生活在《皇帝的新装》里,毫无生气可言。

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将心注入(R) 2017-11-05T23:00:00+00:00 GEEK4IT http://geek4it.com/将心注入

2017-11-05 RATING: 7/10

将心注入

作者:霍华德·舒尔茨 (Howard Schultz)

一、思考

激情,伙伴,品牌。

敢于选择比自己优秀的人才去分管其更适合的部分,把自己解放出来站在更高的方向来看企业的发展。

二、书摘

一个公司不必失去激情和个性也可以做强做大,但这是只有在以人为本、以自身的价值观为本,而不是以利润为本的情况下才可以做到。

如果我们能把每一个雇员都结合到一个整体中来,那么他们就会跟首席执行官似的,以同样的态度来对待公司。

在抵达胜利的终点时,你的身边应该环绕着一群齐声欢呼的胜利者,而不只是观众朝你一个人欢呼。

星巴克咖啡的精华,在于高质量的社交服务体验——这种体验是团体聚会式的、温馨浪漫的、并且与顾客日常生活场景密不可分的。

只有不断高质量地创新核心产品,做得比顾客自己想要的更出色,你的公司才能成功,而不仅仅是维持正常生存。

发自内心尊重、保护员工利益,与员工建立真正的伙伴关系,是成就所有伟大公司的基础。

细节形象最容易打动顾客,也是最容易让别人记住你的办法。用心做好细节,是让品牌拥有真正忠实粉丝的重要途径。

星巴克的创办者们明白销售的基本准则:要使顾客对某样东西有兴趣,就应该赋予它知识和经验的内涵,并让那些想要知晓的人知道。如果你这样做了,就会形成一个似乎被供起来的市场,其被人追捧的程度超乎你的想象。

许多企业家容易落入这样的陷阱中去:他们太执着于自己的观点,以至于当雇员想出一个点子(特别是这个点子与他最初的想法不符)时,他们就会把它压制下去。

将品牌植入越多的感官通道(视觉、听觉、嗅觉、味觉和触觉),给顾客留下的回忆,就会学立体丰满更容易记住你的品牌。

视觉——星巴克早在1991年就专门建立起自己的设计师建筑团队,专门负责星巴克门店形象细节,保证每家店都能让顾客一眼记住。

嗅觉——只要走进全世界任何一家星巴克店面,顾客都能闻到熟悉的咖啡香气,马上产生放松和愉悦的感觉,这种效果正是星巴克设计的套路。

听觉——店里播放的音乐,也是星巴克套路的一部分。为让顾客记住星巴克专属的独特氛围,他们会向专业音乐公司定制蓝调音乐CD,确保每个店的环境声音风格统一。

推行“咖啡豆”股票,把公司所有员工都变成公司合伙人。

员工是离顾客最近的人,没有人比他们更了解顾客想要什么。

唯有用你的心灵才能真正看得清楚,眼睛看不见的才是对你要紧的。

别让比你聪明的人吓倒:最好的管理者是那些对优秀人才有着良好直觉的人,一方面善于调动能人去放手做事,一方面则克制自己不对他们的行动横加干涉。

对具有强势心态的人来说,收敛自己,在作出判断和决定之前,先让别人的想法落地发芽。

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