Principles(R)

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2017-11-19 RATING: 10/10

Principles

作者:Ray Dalio

一、思考

二、书摘

Part 1: The Importance of Principles

Why are principles important?

Esssiential for getting what we want out of life.

If we want to understand each other.we need ot understand each other’s principles.

All successful people have principles.

Without principles you will be forced to react to circumstances that you don’t know what you value

most,and how to get what you want most.this will prevent you from making most of your life.

Without principles ,people in groups will not understand how to behave consistent with others.

What are principles?

Allow your action consistent with your values.(values are about what you consider is important ). They like beacons guide you behaviors and help you face hard choices.

How to get principles?

Forge them by yourself from our own experiences and reflections on those experiences.

Accept others’ principles ,even holistic packaged principles.(it is not necessarily a bad thing to use others’ principles,but having others’ without much thought may lead a risk of inconsistency to your true values. )

Part 2: My Most Fundamental Life Principles

My Most Fundamental Life Principles

Time is like a river that will take you forward into encounters with reality that will require you to make decisions. You can’t stop the movement down this river, and you can’t avoid the encounters. You can only approach these encounters in the best way possible. (That is what this part is all about.)

In order to be motivated, I needed to work for what I wanted, not for what other people wanted me to do. And in order to be successful, I needed to figure out for myself how to get what I wanted, not remember the facts I was being told to remember.

The consensus is often wrong, so I have to be an independent thinker. To make any money, you have to be right when they’re wrong.

I want you to work for yourself, to come up with independent opinions, to stress-test them, to be wary about being overconfident, and to reflect on the consequences of your decisions and constantly improve.

  • 1) Working for what I wanted, not for what others wanted me to do; 2) coming up with the best independent opinions I could muster to move toward my goals; 3) stresstesting my opinions by having the smartest people I could find challenge them so I could find out where I was wrong; 4) being wary about overconfidence, and good at not knowing; and 5) wrestling with reality, experiencing the results of my decisions, and reflecting on what I did to produce them so that I could improve.
  • I learned that finding out what is true, regardless of what that is, including all the stuff most people think is bad.
  • I learned that there is nothing to fear from truth.
  • I learned that being truthful was an extension of my freedom to be me.
  • I learned that everyone makes mistakes and has weaknesses and that one of the most important things that differentiates people is their approach to handling them.

In short, I learned that being totally truthful, especially about mistakes and weaknesses, led to a rapid rate of improvement and movement toward what I wanted.

While most others seem to believe that learning what we are taught is the path to success, I believe that figuring out for yourself what you want and how to get it is a better path.

While most others seem to believe that having answers is better than having questions, I believe that having questions is better than having answers because it leads to more learning.

While most others seem to believe that mistakes are bad things, I believe mistakes are good things because I believe that most learning comes via making mistakes and reflecting on them.

While most others seem to believe that finding out about one’s weaknesses is a bad thing, I believe that it is a good thing because it is the first step toward finding out what to do about them and not letting them stand in your way.

While most others seem to believe that pain is bad, I believe that pain is required to become stronger.

My Most Fundamental Principles

My most fundamental principle: Truth — more precisely, an accurate understanding of reality — is the essential foundation for producing good outcomes.

This perspective gives me a non-traditional sense of good and bad: “good,” to me, means operating consistently with the natural laws, while “bad” means operating inconsistently with these laws.

I believe that evolution, which is the natural movement toward better adaptation, is the greatest single force in the universe, and that it is good.

I believe that the desire to evolve, i.e., to get better, is probably humanity’s most pervasive driving force.

It is natural for us to seek other things or to seek to make the things we have better.

In other words, the sequence of 1) seeking new things (goals); 2) working and learning in the process of pursuing these goals; 3) obtaining these goals; and 4) then doing this over and over again is the personal evolutionary process that fulfills most of us and moves society forward.

I believe that pursuing self-interest in harmony with the laws of the universe and contributing to evolution is universally rewarded.

Self-interest and society’s interests are generally symbiotic: more than anything else, it is pursuit of self interest that motivates people to push themselves to do the difficult things that benefit them and that contribute to society. In return, society rewards those who give it what it wants. That is why how much money people have earned is a rough measure of how much they gave society what it wanted—NOT how much they desired to make money.

Most of us are born with attributes that both help us and hurt us, depending on their applications, and the more extreme the attribute, the more extreme the potential good and bad outcomes these attributes are likely to produce.

In nature everything was made for a purpose, and so too were these different ways of thinking.

The most importantly to understand one’s own values and abilities—and then to find the right fits.

The most important quality that differentiates successful people from unsuccessful people is our capacity to learn and adapt to these things.

As a result of them, most people don’t like reflecting on their weaknesses even though recognizing them is an essential step toward preventing them from causing them problems. Most people especially dislike others exploring their weaknesses because it makes them feel attacked, which produces fight or flight reactions.

It is tragic when people let ego barriers lead them to experience bad outcomes.

The Personal Evolutionary Process

The quality of our lives depends on the quality of the decisions we make.

We aren’t born with the ability to make good decisions; we learn it.

Reality + Dreams + Determination = A Successful Life

What is essential is that you are clear about what you want and that you figure out how to get it.

This basic principle suggests that you can follow one of two paths to happiness:

  • Have high expectations and strive to exceed them;
  • Lower your expectations so that they are at or below your conditions.

Most of us choose the first path, which means that to be happy we have to keep evolving.

The quality of our lives depends on the quality of the decisions we make.

Most learning comes from making mistakes, reflecting on the causes of the mistakes, and learning what to do differently in the future. Believe it or not, you are lucky to feel the pain if you approach it correctly, because it will signal that you need to find solutions and to progress.

Pain + Reflection = Progress

People who worry about looking good typically hide what they don’t know and hide their weaknesses, so they never learn how to properly deal with them and these weaknesses remain impediments in the future. 

People who are interested in making the best possible decisions rarely are confident that they have the best possible answers.

Your Two Yous and Your Machine

Those who are most successful are capable of “higher level thinking”.

I call it “higher level thinking” because your perspective is of one who is looking down on at your machine and yourself objectively.

Think of it as though there are two yous—you as the designer and overseer of the plan to achieve your goals (let’s call that one you(1)) and you as one of the participants in pursuing that mission (which we will call you(2)). You(2) are a resource that you(1) have to get what you(1) want, but by no means your only resource. To be successful you(1) have to be objective about you(2).

If you(1) see that you(2) are not capable of doing something, it is only sensible for you(1) to have someone else do it. In other words, you(1) should look down on you(2) and all the other resources at your(1) disposal and create a “machine” to achieve your(1) goals, remembering that you(1) don’t necessarily need to do anything other than to design and manage the machine to get what you(1) want. If you(1) find that you(2) can’t do something well fire yourself(2) and get a good replacement! You shouldn’t be upset that you found out that you(2) are bad at that—you(1) should be happy because you(1) have improved your(1) chances of getting what you(1) want. If you(1) are disappointed because you(2) can’t be the best person to do everything, you(1) are terribly naïve because nobody can do everything well.

The biggest mistake most people make is to not see themselves and others objectively. If they could just get around this, they could live up to their potentials.

My 5-Step Process to Getting What You Want Out of Life

“The Process” consists of five distinct steps: a) Have clear goals. b) Identify and don’t tolerate the problems that stand in the way of achieving your goals. c) Accurately diagnose these problems. d) Design plans that explicitly lay out tasks that will get you around your problems and on to your goals. e) Implement these plans—i.e., do these tasks.

A few general points about the process: a) You must approach these as distinct steps rather than blur them together. b) Each of these five steps requires different talents and disciplines. c) It is essential to approach this process in a very clear-headed, rational way rather than emotionally.

Treat your life like a game or a martial art. Your mission is to figure out how to get around your challenges to get to your goals. In the process of playing the game or practicing this martial art, you will become more skilled. As you get better, you will progress to ever-higher levels of the game that will require—and teach you—greater skills.

By and large, life will give you what you deserve and it doesn’t give a damn what you “like.” So it is up to you to take full responsibility to connect what you want with what you need to do to get it, and then to do those things—which often are difficult but produce good results—so that you’ll then deserve to get what you want.

The 5 Steps Close-Up

1) Setting Goals

You can have virtually anything you want, but you can’t have everything you want.

To achieve your goals you have to prioritize, and that includes rejecting good alternatives (so that you have the time and resources to pursue even better ones—time being probably your greatest limiting factor, though, through leverage, you can substantially reduce time’s constraints).

Failing to make the distinction between goals and desires will lead you in the wrong direction, because you will be inclined to pursue things you want that will undermine your ability to get things you want more. In short, you can pursue anything you desire—just make sure that you know the consequences of what you are doing.

Another common reason people fail at this stage is that they lose sight of their goals, getting caught up in day-to-day tasks.

In other words, there is almost no reason not to succeed if you take the attitude of 1) total flexibility—good answers can come from anyone or anywhere (and in fact, as I have mentioned, there are far more good answers “out there” than there are in you) and 2) total accountability: regardless of where the good answers come from, it’s your job to find them.

Generally speaking, goal-setting is best done by those who are good at big-picture conceptual thinking, synthesizing, visualizing, and prioritizing. But whatever your strengths and weaknesses are, don’t forget the big and really great news here: it is not essential that you have all of these qualities yourself, because you can supplement them with the help of others.

In summary, in order to get what you want, the first step is to really know what you want, without confusing goals with desires, and without limiting yourself because of some imagined impediments that you haven’t thoroughly analyzed.

You can ask the people around you for help—or even ask them to do the things you don’t do well.

2) Identifying and Not Tolerating Problems

Most problems are potential improvements screaming at you.

The more painful the problem, the louder it is screaming.In order to be successful, you have to 1) perceive problems and 2) not tolerate them.

It is essential to bring problems to the surface. Most people don’t like to do this. But most successful people know that they have to do this. The most common reasons people don’t successfully identify their problems are generally rooted either in a lack of will or in a lack of talent or skill.

When identifying problems, it is important to remain centered and logical.

Remember that the pains you are feeling are “growing pains” that will test your character and reward you if you push through them. Try to look at your problems as a detached observer would. Remember that identifying problems is like finding gems embedded in puzzles; if you solve the puzzles you will get the gems that will make your life much better. Doing this continuously will lead to your rapid evolution. So, if you’re logical, you really should get excited about finding problems because identifying them will bring you closer to your goals.

Be very precise in specifying your problems.

Don’t confuse problems with causes.

Once you identify your problems, you must not tolerate them.

People who are good at this step—identifying and not tolerating problems—tend to have strong abilities to perceive and synthesize a clear and accurate picture, as well as demonstrate a fierce intolerance of badness (regardless of the severity).

3) Diagnosing the Problems

You will be much more effective if you focus on diagnosis and design rather than jumping to solutions.

You must be calm and logical.

You must get at the root causes.

Root causes, like principles, are things that manifest themselves over and over again as the deep-seated reasons behind the actions that cause problems.

Identifying the real root causes of your problems is essential because you can eliminate your problems only by removing their root causes. In other words, you must understand, accept, and successfully deal with reality in order to move toward your goals.

To be successful, you must be willing to look at your own behavior and the behavior of others as possible causes of problems.

The most important qualities for successfully diagnosing problems are logic, the ability to see multiple possibilities, and the willingness to touch people’s nerves to overcome the ego barriers that stand in the way of truth.

4) Designing the Plan (Determining the Solutions)

Most of the movement toward your goals comes from designing how to remove the root causes of your problems. Problems are great because they are very specific impediments, so you know that you will move forward if you can identify and eliminate their root causes.

Creating a design is like writing a movie script in that you visualize who will do what through time in order to achieve the goal.

Then write down the plan so you don’t lose sight of it, and include who needs to do what and when. The list of tasks falls out from this story (i.e., the plan), but they are not the same. The story, or plan, is what connects your goals to the tasks. For you to succeed, you must not lose sight of the goals or the story while focusing on the tasks; you must constantly refer back and forth.

When designing your plan, think about the timelines of various interconnected tasks. Sketch them out loosely and then refine them with the specific tasks. This is an iterative process, alternating between sketching out your broad steps (e.g., hire great people) and filling these in with more specific tasks with estimated timelines (e.g., in the next two weeks choose the headhunters to find the great people) that will have implications (e.g., costs, time, etc.). These will lead you to modify your design sketch until the design and tasks work well together. Being as specific as possible (e.g., specifying who will do what and when) allows you to visualize how the design will work at both a big-picture level and in detail. It will also give you and others the to-do lists and target dates that will help direct you.

Remember: Designing precedes doing!

5) Doing the Tasks

It is critical to know each day what you need to do and have the discipline to do it.

People who are good at this stage can reliably execute a plan. They tend to be self-disciplined and proactive rather than reactive to the blizzard of daily tasks that can divert them from execution. They are results-oriented: they love to push themselves over the finish line to achieve the goal.

As with the other steps, if you aren’t good at this step, get help. There are many successful, creative people who are good at the other steps but who would have failed because they aren’t good at execution. But they succeeded nonetheless because of great symbiotic relationships with highly reliable task-doers.

The Relationships between These Steps

Goals are the sole purpose of designs and tasks.

To remember the connections between the tasks and the goals that they are meant to achieve, you just have to ask, “Why?” It is good to connect tasks to goals this way (with the “Why?”), because losing sight of the connections will prevent you from succeeding.

Again, this 5-Step Process is iterative. This means that after completing one of the steps you will probably have acquired relevant information that leads you to modify the other steps.

Weaknesses Don’t Matter if You Find Solutions

To repeat, the best advice I can give you is to ask yourself what you want, then ask ‘what is true,’ and then ask yourself ‘what should be done about it.’ If you honestly ask and answer these questions you will move much faster towards what you want to get out of life than if you don’t!

Most importantly, ask yourself what is your biggest weakness that stands in the way of what you want.

When you encounter that pain, try to remember that you can get what you want out of life if you can open-mindedly reflect, with the help of others, on what is standing in your way and then deal with it.

Being weak at any one of these steps is not a problem if you understand what you are weak at and successfully compensate for that weakness by seeking help.

It is easy to find out what weaknesses are standing in your way by 1) identifying which steps you are failing at and 2) getting the feedback of people who are successful at doing what you are having problems with.

In a nutshell, my 5-Step process for achieving what you want is: Values -> 1) Goals -> 2) Problems -> 3) Diagnoses -> 4) Designs -> 5) Tasks

Your values determine what you want, i.e., your goals. In trying to achieve your goals, you will encounter problems that have to be diagnosed. Only after determining the real root causes of these problems can you design a plan to get around them. Once you have a good plan, you have to muster the self-discipline to do what is required to make the plan succeed. Note that this process starts with your values, but it requires that you succeed at all five steps. While these steps require different abilities, you don’t have to be good at all of them. If you aren’t good at all of them (which is true for almost everyone), you need to know what you are bad at and how to compensate for your weaknesses. This requires you to put your ego aside, objectively reflect on your strengths and weaknesses, and seek the help from others.

Life is like a game where you seek to overcome the obstacles that stand in the way of achieving your goals.

You get better at this game through practice.

The game consists of a series of choices that have consequences.

You can’t stop the problems and choices from coming at you, so it’s better to learn how to deal with them.

You have the freedom to make whatever choices you want, though it’s best to be mindful of their consequences.

The pain of problems is a call to find solutions rather than a reason for unhappiness and inaction, so it’s silly, pointless, and harmful to be upset at the problems and choices that come at you (though it’s understandable).

The process goes better if you are as accurate as possible in all respects, including assessing your strengths and weaknesses and adapting to them.

Part 3: My Management Principles

PS:

TED: How The Economic Machine Works

Tony Robbins interviews billionaire Ray Dalio - author of Principles


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